Types of Validity
Here is an overview on the main types of validity used for the scientific method.
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"Any research can be affected by different kinds of factors which, while extraneous to the concerns of the research, can invalidate the findings" (Seliger & Shohamy 1989, 95).
Let's take a look on the the most frequent uses of validity in the scientific method:
“Could there be an alternative cause, or causes, that explain my observations and results?”
Test validity is an indicator of how much meaning can be placed upon a set of test results.
Criterion Validity assesses whether a test reflects a certain set of abilities.
- Concurrent validity measures the test against a benchmark test and high correlation indicates that the test has strong criterion validity.
- Predictive validity is a measure of how well a test predicts abilities. It involves testing a group of subjects for a certain construct and then comparing them with results obtained at some point in the future.
Content validity is the estimate of how much a measure represents every single element of a construct.
Construct validity defines how well a test or experiment measures up to its claims. A test designed to measure depression must only measure that particular construct, not closely related ideals such as anxiety or stress.
- Convergent validity tests that constructs that are expected to be related are, in fact, related.
- Discriminant validity tests that constructs that should have no relationship do, in fact, not have any relationship. (also referred to as divergent validity)
Face validity is a measure of how representative a research project is ‘at face value,' and whether it appears to be a good project.