Science as method stands on a foundation of several pillars, the idea of reasoning and logic, research ethics, the philosophy of science and the history of science.
Reasoning and Logic
Deduction, Induction, Hypothetico-Deductive Method, Falsifiability
Philosophy of Science
The assumptions, foundations and implications of science
Ethical considerations you as a scientist must do
History of Science
The origin of research. Ancient and modern history of science.
Oskar Blakstad (Jan 15, 2013). Foundations of Science. Retrieved Aug 29, 2015 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/foundations-of-science