The history of medicine is a long and distinguished one, as healers sought to alleviate illnesses and fix injuries since the dawn of humanity. Ancient Medicine includes shamen and pagan priests used a blend of rituals and medical techniques, to cure ailments.
The Islamic Golden Age, spanning the 8th to the 15th Centuries, saw many great advances in science, as Islamic scholars gathered knowledge from across the known world and added their own findings. One of these important fields was Islamic medicine, which saw medical practice begin to resemble our modern systems.
Andreas Vesalius and Modern Human Anatomy
Before Andreas Vesalius, the human anatomy was not learned by studying or dissecting bodies. Much of the knowledge was fictional, chiefly contributed by Galen over a millennium ago.
Discovery of Pasteurization
Louis Pasteur is regarded as one of the greatest saviors of humanity. He made numerous discoveries but he is best remembered for his advocation of the germs theory and the following discovery of pasteurization.
Discovery of Bacteria
Antony van Leeuwenhoek is regarded as the father of microbiology. Van Leeuwenhoek is known for the discovery of bacteria.
Semmelweis and Hand Washing
Ignaz Semmelweis introduced hand washing standards after discovering that the occurrence of puerperal fever could be prevented by practicing hand disinfection in obstetrical clinics. He believed that microbes causing infection were readily transferred from patients to patients, medical staff to patients and vice versa.
Edward Jenner and Development of Vaccination
Edward Jenner developed and generalized the vaccination technique against the dreadful smallpox disease. Although he did not originate the idea of cowpox attack to confer immunity against smallpox, yet it was his experiments and investigations which transformed a traditional belief into standard procedure to save innumerable millions of lives.
The History of Anesthesia
Research on modern techniques to reduce surgical pain began when an English scientist Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) discovered that inhalation of nitrous oxide might relieve pain. This introduced the development of modern anesthesia.
The Discovery of X-Ray Beams
While Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen was experimenting, he observed that certain rays were emitted during the passing of the current through discharge tube. This discovery lead to the development of the X-ray.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was a collaborative scientific research program on international scale conducted to discover all the chemical base pairs which make up human DNA for further biological studies. Its primary goal was to map and identify both physically and functionally, the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes of the human genome.
Some of the Nobel Prizes in 'Medicine or Physiology'