Visual integration skills are a set of skills under visual perceptual processing. They include the visual skills that enable a person to put together one sensory information with another of the same sense, or a group of sensory information of one sense with that of another sense.
The groups of visual integration skills include visual-motor, visual-auditory, and visual-visual integration skills.
When several visual skills are joined together, a visual-visual integration skill emerges. When you have one new word in mind and match this word with the appropriate image inside your mind, you are using your visual-visual integration skill. This skill is helpful for better recall of new words or images that you have just learned. For instance, if you have learned the word "chrysanthemum" and have an image of this plant and its flower in your mind, you are to use your visual-visual integration skill to put these two information together.
Visual-motor integration or VMI is a group of skills that allow us to incorporate visual information and motor sensory information, both gross motor and fine motor movements. The VMI skills help us not only in planning motor tasks, but also in the execution and monitoring of such through the use of visual information. From simple activities such as tying shoe laces and drinking milk, to complicated tasks such as solving math problems and playing a sport, VMI skills allow us to move based on what we visualize.
Many books refer to VMI as eye-hand coordination skill. When you copy an image from a book through drawing, you guide your pencil visually as you move your hand using fine motor movement in order to copy the image as accurately as you could, based on what you see.
According to several studies, VMI has been proven to influence IQ test scores. If a child has VMI skill problems, chances are his IQ test scores are low. Also, math skills are affected by VMI problems. Written examinations may also be affected since children with poor VMI skills are seen to have poor penmanship, inability to accurately copy information and tendency to erase excessively. Some clinical problems related to VMI deficiencies include visual-perceptual-motor dysfunction, apraxia (developmental), and graphomotor dyscoordination.
Coordinating visual information and sound information requires the visual-auditory integration skill. This skill is best exercised when you hear a word and write it down, or when you see a word and say it out loud. VAI skills include memory, discrimination, attention, closure and figure-ground skills.
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