Empirical Research can be defined as "research based on experimentation or observation (evidence)". Such research is conducted to test a hypothesis.
The word empirical means information gained by experience, observation, or experiment. The central theme in scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical which means it is based on evidence. In scientific method the word "empirical" refers to the use of working hypothesis that can be tested using observation and experiment.
Empirical data is produced by experiment and observation.
In real case scenario, the collection of evidence to prove or counter any theory involves planned research designs in order to collect empirical data. Several types of designs have been suggested and used by researchers. Also accurate analysis of data using standard statistical methods remains critical in order to determine legitimacy of empirical research.
Various statistical formulas such uncertainty coefficient, regression, t-test, chi-square and different types of ANOVA (analysis of variance) have been extensively used to form logical and valid conclusion.
However, it is important to remember that any of these statistical formulas don't produce proof and can only support a hypothesis, reject it, or do neither.
Empirical cycle consists of following stages: