Children are a very interesting age group to study on and in fact, many psychology theories are focused on them. Because it is in the childhood days that skills are developed and the manner by which we respond to new challenges or various situations, we can say that social and emotional development in children are full of complexities.
Some children can easily adapt to changes in their environment, like a new food, a new person or a new event in their life. This type of children are said to be having routine biological cycles like eating at the same hour every day. On the other hand, other children may negatively respond to shifts in their life, and may have irregular biological patterns. Other children are caught in between and may respond neutrally over a situation or a change in their environment. Since there are different types of children, it is really necessary to get to know the social and emotional development of children across the life span.
1. At 9-18 Months of Age
Children aged 9 months want to be with their parents or primary caregivers all the time. They become very anxious and may cry out loud when they get separated from their parents. Throwing temper tantrums and hard-to-stop cries are just a few hallmarks at this age.
2. At 18 Months-2 Years of Age
Children at this age begin to try things on their own, but still want to be with their parents at most times. They start to have a sense of gender identity, meaning girls feel that they are girls, and start to play with toys meant for girls. Same goes with the boys.
3. At 2-3 Years of Age
Children at this age tries some risky behavior and may even violate some rules, as if they are very curious on what will happen after breaking
This age is the peak of the child’s imagination as he becomes more interested in fantasy play, and may even have imaginary friends. When children the rules of their parents. When offered something, like a food or a toy, they may say “No” so frequently that parents may get impatient. Throwing tantrums is very normal at this age, but setting proper limits would lessen the tendency of temper tantrums. Some children like to be engaged in active play, while others don’t want to share their toys with other kids.
4. At 3 to 5 Years of Age
Engage in fantasy play, they assume different roles which would make them have meaningful social interactions with other children. they are more willing to solve their problems with the help of their parents, and they are also wanting to help and be helped by other children as they become friends with other kids. At this age, they may fear that there is a monster under their bed or inside the closet. What they need, therefore, is the support and reassurance of their parents that they do not exist.
5. At 7 to 12 Years of Age
This age is the time when a child encounters a lot of issues in his life. He may feel that there’s a need to become competent inside the classroom to meet the expectations of his parents and teachers. He may also either want to make many friends and peers, or prefer to be alone. Children at this age regard their parents as primary sources of guidance and support, and teachers as the secondary ones.