# Exercicios gerales Aneis e Ideais

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18.705F11 Lecture Notes Exercises1. Rings and IdealsExercise (1.5). Let R be a ring, a an ideal, and P := R[X1 , . . . , Xn ] the polynomial ring. Construct an isomorphism from P/aP onto (R/a)[X1 , . . . , Xn ]. Answer: Let : R R/a be the quotient map. Form the homomorphism : P (R/a)[X1 , . . . , Xn ] such that |R = and (Xi ) = Xi . Then ( ) i i i i a(i1 ,...,in ) X11 Xnn = (a(i1 ,...,in ) )X11 Xnn . Since is surjective, so is . Since Ker() = a, it follows that i i Ker() = aX11 Xnn = aP. Therefore, induces the desired isomorphism by (1.4.1).

Exercise (1.8). Let R be ring, P := R[X1 , . . . , Xn ] the polynomial ring. Let m n and a1 , . . . , am R. Set p := X1 a1 , . . . , Xm am . Prove that P/p = R[Xm+1 , . . . , Xn ]. Answer: First, assume m = n. Set P := R[X1 , . . . , Xn1 ] and p := X1 a1 , . . . , Xn1 an1 P . By induction on n, we may assume P /p = R. However, P = P [Xn ]. Hence P/p P = (P /p )[Xn ] by (1.5). Thus P/p P = R[Xn ]. / We have P/p = (P/p P ) p(P/p P ) by (1.7). But p = p P + Xn an P . Hence p(P/p P ) = Xn an (P/p P ). So P/p = R[Xn ]/Xn an . So P/p = R by (1.6). In general, P = (R[X1 , . . . , Xm ])[Xm+1 , . . . , Xn ]. Thus P/p = R[Xm+1 , . . . , Xn ] by (1.5). Exercise (1.12) (Chinese Remainder Theorem). Let R be a ring. (1) Let a and b be comaximal ideals; that is, a + b = R. Prove (a) ab = a b and (b) R/ab = (R/a) (R/b). (2) Let a be comaximal to both b and b . Prove a is also comaximal to bb . (3) Let a, b be comaximal, and m, n 1. Prove am and bn are comaximal. (4) Let a1 , . . . , an be pairwise comaximal. Prove (a) a1 and a2 an are comaximal; (b) a1 an = a1 an ; (c) R/(a1 an ) (R/ai ). Answer: To prove (1)(a), note that always ab a b. Conversely, a + b = R implies x+y = 1 with x a and y b. So given z ab, we have z = xz +yz ab. To prove (1)(b), form the map R R/a R/b that carries an element to its pair of residues. The kernel is a b, which is ab by (1). So we have an injection : R/ab R/a R/b. To show that is surjective, take any element (, y ) in R/a R/b. Say x and y x are the residues of x and y. Since a + b = R, we can nd a a and b b such that a + b = y x. Then (x + a) = (, y ), as desired. Thus (1) holds. x 1 Updated 11/09/15

1. Rings and Ideals To prove (2), note that R = (a + b)(a + b ) = (a2 + ba + ab ) + bb a + bb R.

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To prove (3), note that (2) implies a and bn are comaximal for any n 1 by induction on n. Hence, bn and am are comaximal for any m 1. To prove (4)(a), assume a1 and a2 an1 are comaximal by induction on n. By hypothesis, a1 and an are comaximal. Thus (2) yields (a). To prove (4)(b) and (4)(c), again proceed by induction on n. Thus (1) yields a1 (a2 an ) = a1 (a2 an ) = a1 a2 an ; R/(a1 an ) R/a1 R/(a2 an ) (R/ai ).

Exercise (1.13). First, given a prime number p and a k 1, nd the idempotents in Z/pk . Second, nd the idempotents in Z/12. Third, nd the number N of idempotents in Z/n where n = i=1 pni with pi distinct prime numbers. i Answer: First, let m Z be idempotent modulo pk . Then m(m 1) is divisible by pk . So either m or m 1 is divisible by pk , as m and m 1 have no common prime divisor. Hence 0 and 1 are the only idempotents in Z/pk . Second, since 3 + 4 = 1, the Chinese Remainder Theorem (1.12) yields Z/12 = Z/3 Z/4. Hence m is idempotent modulo 12 if and only if m is idempotent modulo 3 and modulo 4. By the previous case, we have the following possibilities: m 0 (mod 3) m 1 (mod 3) m 1 (mod 3) m 0 (mod 3) and and and and m 0 (mod 4); m 1 (mod 4); m 0 (mod 4); m 1 (mod 4).

Therefore, m 0, 1, 4, 9 (mod 12). ni1 Third, for each i, the two numbers pn1 pi1 and pni have no common prime 1 i divisor. Hence some linear combination is equal to 1 by the Euclidean Algorithm. So the principal ideals they generate are comaximal. Hence by induction on N , the Chinese Remainder Theorem yields Z/n =N i=1

Z/pni . i

So m is idempotent modulo n if and only if m is idempotent modulo pni for all i; hence, if and only if m is 0 or 1 modulo pni for all i by the rst case. Thus there are 2N idempotents in Z/n. Exercise (1.14). Let R := R R be a product of rings, a R an ideal. Show a = a a with a R and a R ideals. Show R/a = (R /a ) (R /a ). Answer: Set a := {x | (x , 0) a} and a := {x | (0, x ) a}. Clearly a R and a R are ideals. Clearly,

a a 0 + 0 a = a a . The opposite inclusion holds, because if a (x , x ), then a (x , x ) (1, 0) = (x , 0) and a (x , x ) (0, 1) = (0, x ). Updated 11/09/15 18.705F11 Lecture Notes Exercises

2. Prime Ideals

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Finally, the equation R/a = (R/a ) (R/a ) is now clear from the construction of the residue class ring.

2. Prime IdealsExercise (2.2). Let a and b be ideals, and p a prime ideal. Prove that these conditions are equivalent: (1) a p or b p; and (2) a b p; and (3) ab p. Answer: Trivially, (1) implies (2). If (2) holds, then (3) follows as ab a b. Finally, assume a p and b p. Then there are x a and y b with x, y p. / Hence, since p is prime, xy p. However, xy ab. Thus (3) implies (1). / Exercise (2.4). Given a prime number p and an integer n 2, prove that the residue ring Z/pn does not contain a domain. Answer: Any subring of Z/pn must contain 1, and 1 generates Z/pn as an abelian group. So Z/pn contains no proper subrings. However, Z/pn is not a domain, because in it, p pn1 = 0 but neither p nor pn1 is 0. Exercise (2.5). Let R := R R be a product of two rings. Show that R is a domain if and only if either R or R is a domain and the other is 0. Answer: Suppose R is a domain. Since (1, 0)(0, 1) = (0, 0), either (1, 0) = (0, 0) or (0, 1) = (0, 0). Correspondingly, either R = 0 and R = R , or R = 0 and R = R . The assertion is now obvious. Exercise (2.10). Let R be a domain, and R[X1 , . . . , Xn ] the polynomial ring in n variables. Let m n, and set p := X1 , . . . , Xm . Prove p is a prime ideal. Answer: Simply combine (2.9), (2.3), and (1.8)

Exercise (2.11). Let R := R R be a product of rings. Show every prime ideal of R has the form p R with p R prime or R p with p R prime. Answer: Simply combine (1.14), (2.9), and (2.5).

Exercise (2.15). Let k be a eld, R a nonzero ring, and : k R a homomorphism. Prove is injective. Answer: By (1.1), 1 = 0 in R. So Ker() = k. So Ker() = 0 by (2.14). Thus is injective. Exercise (2.18). Prove the following statements or give a counterexample. (1) (2) (3) (4) The complement of a multiplicative set is a prime ideal. Given two prime ideals, their intersection is prime. Given two prime ideals, their sum is prime. Given a ring homomorphism : R R , the operation 1 carries maximal ideals of R to maximal ideals of R. (5) In (1.7), 1 takes maximal ideals of R/a to maximal ideals of R. 18.705F11 Lecture Notes Exercises Updated 11/09/22

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Answer: (1) False. In the ring Z, consider the set S of powers of 2. The complement T of S contains 3 and 5, but not 8; so T is not an ideal. (2) False. In the ring Z, consider the prime ideals 2 and 3; their intersection 2 3 is equal to 6, which is not prime. (3) False. Since 2 3 5 = 1, we have 3 + 5 = Z. (4) False. Let : Z Q be the inclusion map. Then 1 0 = 0. (5) True. The assertion is immediate from (1.7). Exercise (2.21). Prove that, in a PID, elements x and y are relatively prime (share no prime factor) if and only if the ideals x and y are comaximal. Answer: Say x + y = d. Then d = gcd(x, y), as is easy to check. The assertion is now obvious. Exercise (2.24). Preserve the setup of (2.23). Let f := a0 X n + + an be a polynomial of positive degree n. Assume that R has innitely many prime elements p, or simply that there is a p such that p a0 . Show that f is not maximal. Answer: Set a := p, f . Then a f , because p is not a multiple of f . Set k := R/p. Since p is irreducible, k is a domain by (2.6) and (2.8). Let f k[X] denote the image of f . By hypothesis, deg(f ) = n 1. Hence f is not a unit by (2.3) since k is a domain. Therefore, f is proper. But P/a k[X]/f by (1.5) and (1.7). So a is proper. Thus f is not maximal.

3. RadicalsExercise (3.6). Let A be a ring, m a maximal ideal such that 1 + m is a unit for every m m. Prove A is local. Is this assertion still true if m is not maximal? Answer: Take y A. Lets prove that, if y m, then y is a unit. Since m is / maximal, y + m = A. Hence there exist x R and m m such that xy + m = 1, or in other words, xy = 1 m. So xy is a unit by hypothesis; whence, y is a unit. Thus A is local by (3.4). The assertion is not true if m is not maximal. Indeed, take any ring that is not local, for example Z, and take m := 0. Exercise (3.10). Let : R R be a map of rings, p an ideal of R. Prove (1) there is an ideal q of R with 1 (q) = p if and only if 1 (pR ) = p; (2) if p is prime with 1 (pR ) = p, then theres a prime q of R with 1 (q) = p. Answer: In (1), given q, note (p) q, as always (1 (q)) q. So pR q. Hence 1 (pR ) 1 (q) = p. But, always p 1 (pR ). Thus 1 (pR ) = p. The converse is trivial: take q := pR . In (2), set S := (R p). Then S pR = , as (x) pR implies x 1 (pR ) and 1 (pR ) = p. So theres a prime q of R containing pR and disjoint from S by (3.9). So 1 (q) 1 (pR ) = p and 1 (q) (R p) = . Thus 1 (q) = p. Exercise (3.11). Use Zorns lemma to prove that any prime ideal p contains a minimal prime ideal. 18.705F11 Lecture Notes Exercises Updated 11/09/22

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Answer: Let S be the set of all prime ideals contained in p. Then p S, so S = . Order S by reverse inclusion. To apply Zorns Lemma, we must show that, for any decreasing chain {p } of prime ideals, the intersection p0 := p is a prime ideal. So take x, y p0 . Then there exists such that x, y p . Since p is prime, / / xy p . Hence xy p0 .